В этом посте я просто буду собирать всё, что надыбал полезного про команды Linux
Сброс DNS cache
sudo systemd-resolve --flush-caches
С кривыми сборкамт утилиты apt бывает необходимо класть .deb файл в директорию
cd /var/cache/apt/archives/; sudo dpkg -i ./DEB_FILE; sudo apt-get install -f;
1 --x Execute 2 -w- Write 3 -wx Execute + Write 4 r-- Read 5 r-x Read + Execute 6 rw- Read + Write 7 rwx Read + Write + Execute
LinuxLite LL [SOURCE]
Installing software with synaptic package manager:
1. Open synaptic package manager
With menu (Install/Remove Software) or with this terminal command:
2. Click Reload to to download the latest package lists from the repositories.
3. Search for software in the search box.
4. Right click each software you want to install and mark them for installation.This will mark additional dependencies automatically.
5. After marking for installation, click on Apply to start downloading an installing all the marked applications.
1. Search for PPA's with google. Type something like "ppa for app"
For example: ppa for qmplay2, ppa for firefox
2. Open the terminal and add PPA address
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:whatever_the_address_ is
3. Update package lists from the repository.
sudo apt-get update
4. Install application with synaptic or use the terminal method.
Make sure those PPA's are trusted. For example if some sites recomend them. You don't want to install software from an untrusted source.
Also make sure to add only stable version of a PPA.
Another way to add PPA's is with GUI tool, enter:
Then click on Add and type in the PPA.
1. Open the terminal and type in
sudo apt-get update
2. Install the application, instead of 'name' type in application's package name
sudo apt-get install name
Optional: Instead of apt-get you can use aptitude (sudo aptitude install name)
If you know a certain aplication's name but you don't know the exact package name of that application so you can install it,
you can find the exact package name with apt-cache or aptitude:
The apt-cache command line tool is used for searching apt software package cache.
If you haven't done this allready, open your terminal and type:
sudo apt-get update
To list all the available packages, type this command:
You can pipe the output of this command to less or more
apt-cache pkgnames | less
apt-cache pkgnames | more
Less allows you to scroll from within even a non-scrollable terminal, more prints a page then you press enter to bring up every line after that.
To find out the package name and it's description, use the "search" flag.
For example, you can search for gnome-mines.
apt-cache search gnome-mines
This is the output:
gnome-mines - popular minesweeper puzzle game for GNOME gnomine - popular minesweeper puzzle game for GNOME (transitional package)
To display all packages starting with word "fire" ( you can use whatever) type:
apt-cache pkgnames fire ... firefox firefox-locale-zh-hant firefox-locale-csb firefox-locale-zu firefox-mozsymbols firebird2.5-super-dbg firedns firebird2.5-common firehol firefox-globalmenu firefox-locale-ast firebird2.5-examples
If you want to display package version number, check sums, size, installed size, category... use show:
apt-cache show firefox
To check dependencies for specific packages use showpkg.
apt-cache showpkg firefox
The stats sub command will display overall statistics about the cache.
You can use ncurses interface (menu-like command line interface) or search through cli (command line interface).
To run aptitude with ncurses interface:
If you don't know what you are doing don't use aptitude with NCURSES interface!
Seaching with CLI method:
This lists all avaiable packages.
aptitude search ~T | less
p -package is not installed
c -the package was deleted but its configuration files remain on the system
i -installed packages
v -virtual packages
A -package was automatically installed
This lists installed packages:
aptitude search ~i | less
This matches any package which is purely virtual: that is, its name is provided by a package or mentioned in a dependency, but no package of that name exists.
aptitude search ~v | less
This matches any installed package which can be upgraded
aptitude search ~U | less
Lists all firefox packages:
aptitude search firefox | less
This will list all packages containing word "fire":
aptitude search fire | less
This will list all installed packages containing word "fire":
aptitude search ~ifire | less
To display detailed information about package use show flag:
aptitude show firefox
If you downloaded .deb package from the internet there are two methods available to install software.
1. Find the .deb package double click .on it,(or type gdebi-gtk in the terminal and open the file with gdebi package manager) and click install.
2. Open the terminal,
Example: If you saved it in /home/user/Downloads type cd /home/user/Downloads
This will list all .deb files in the directory, it will help you with the next step because you will need .deb file's name.
Install it with this, just change "filename" to the deb package name.
sudo dpkg -i filename.deb
Installing .run files
chmod +x filename.run
or if it needs root permision
chmod +x filename.sh
if it needs root permission
Installing from source code
If you downloaded .tar .tar.bz tar.bz2 or even .zip archive from the internet these archives contain source code,
and you will have to compile that source code in order to install that software.
First install build-essential
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install build-essential
1. Navigate to the directory where you downloaded archive and extract the archive
Use this command to extract a .tar.gz file:
tar -xzvf filename.tar.gz
Or use this command to extract a .tar.bz2 file:
tar -xjvf filename.tar.bz2
Instead of extracting the archive with the Terminal, you can open the directory with file manager and use Xarchiver or any other application to do this.
2. Enter the extracted directory, it will be the same as the archive filename.
3. Once you’re in the extracted directory run:
If it fails, it will tell you to install the dependencies. Install them:
sudo apt-get install whatever_it_tells_you
Note that some applications may not use ./configure. Check the “README” or “INSTALL” file in the application’s extracted folder for more specific instructions.
Repeat ./configure, and if it fails again install dependencies, and so on untill ./configure completes successfully.
4. Once ./configure completes successfully, you’re ready to compile.
After this command finishes, the program is successfully compiled.
5. Use this command to install it to your system:
sudo make install
6. Note: Programs you install this way won’t be automatically updated even if they contain security vulnerabilities.
it’s a good idea to stick with distribution’s official packages or the ppa
#тсокрм #ЗапискиБывалых #Linux